Understanding NICA Eligibility in Florida: A Comprehensive Guide

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Navigating the intricacies of birth injury laws can be a daunting experience for parents whose child has sustained birth-related neurological injuries. The Florida Birth-Related Neurological Injury Compensation Association (NICA) serves as a much-needed respite, offering compensation without the need for litigation. However, it’s essential to understand the eligibility criteria to access this relief.

What is NICA?

The Florida Birth-Related Neurological Injury Compensation Association (NICA) was established to provide compensation for a limited category of severe birth-related neurological injuries. These injuries must occur during labor, delivery, or the immediate post-birth period and result in long-term disability.

Basic Eligibility Requirements

Type of Injury

Detail: The injury in question must be a birth-related neurological injury. In simple terms, the injury should affect the baby’s nervous system and must be severe enough to cause permanent and substantial physical and mental impairment.

Example: A child who sustains brain damage during birth resulting in cerebral palsy may be eligible for NICA compensation, assuming all other criteria are met.

Medical Professional Involvement

Detail: One of the key elements for eligibility is that the obstetrician involved in the childbirth, or the hospital where the delivery occurs, must be participants in the NICA program at the time of the injury. This means that they must have opted into the program and paid the necessary fees to be a part of NICA.

Example: If you gave birth at Advent Health Heart of Florida or Sebring, Winter Haven Hospital, Lakeland Regional Medical Center, Orlando Regional or an HCA Hospital these hospitals are registered participants in the NICA program. Therefore, you could be eligible for compensation through NICA for a qualifying injury.

Timing and Location

Detail: The birth must occur in a hospital, and not at home or in any other setting. Additionally, the baby’s weight at birth must be at least 5.5 pounds if it’s a single birth. For multiple births, the weight requirement lowers to at least 4.4 pounds per child.

Example: A single baby born weighing 5.7 pounds in a registered hospital who sustains a neurological injury during delivery would meet this eligibility criterion. Conversely, a baby born at home or a birthing center would not be eligible under this requirement.


Detail: It’s also crucial to understand what NICA does not cover. For example, injuries stemming from genetic abnormalities or that are congenital and would occur regardless of the birthing process are not covered. Similarly, injuries that occur before labor and delivery or after the immediate post-birth period are not eligible.

Example: If a child is born with Down syndrome, this would not be covered by NICA, as it is a genetic condition and not the result of a birth-related neurological injury.

The Filing Process

Detail: Once you determine eligibility, you’ll need to file a petition with Florida’s Division of Administrative Hearings. This is usually a legal process involving the presentation of medical records, testimonies, and other supporting evidence.

Example: Parents would need to compile comprehensive medical records, secure expert testimonies that might include the attending obstetrician, and possibly even include video or photographic evidence if available.

Benefits and Limitations

Detail: The benefits include comprehensive coverage for ‘necessary and reasonable’ medical, hospital, rehabilitative, and care expenses. This is a lifetime provision for the affected child. However, by opting for NICA, parents forfeit the right to sue the healthcare providers for malpractice related to the injury.

Example: If a child requires specialized wheelchairs or other medical equipment for mobility, NICA would cover these costs, along with ongoing medical care. However, parents could not then bring a malpractice lawsuit against the attending physician or hospital for the birth-related neurological injury.

Filing a Petition with the Division of Administrative Hearings (DOAH)

Detail: The first formal step in making a claim under NICA is to file a petition with the Florida Division of Administrative Hearings (DOAH). This petition must include specific information about the child’s birth-related neurological injury, the parties involved, and other necessary details.

Example: The petition might include the child’s birth records, the name of the attending obstetrician, and the hospital where the birth occurred. It should also outline why you believe your case qualifies for NICA benefits.

Documentation and Medical Records

Detail: A critical part of the filing process involves gathering comprehensive medical records to establish the extent of the injury and its relation to the birthing process. These records will generally need to be certified copies and may include prenatal records, labor and delivery records, and postnatal records.

Example: You would need to submit records like ultrasound reports, the baby’s medical charts from the hospital, and any tests or evaluations performed after the birth to diagnose or assess the neurological injury.

Expert Testimonies

Detail: Securing expert testimony is often required to validate the claim. The experts may include obstetricians, neurologists, and even economic analysts who can speak to the financial burden of the injury.

Example: If your child has cerebral palsy as a result of a birth injury, you might have a pediatric neurologist testify about the expected lifetime medical needs and costs related to the condition.

Legal Representation

Detail: Given the complexities involved, legal representation is often recommended when filing a NICA claim. A qualified attorney can help you navigate the complexities of administrative law, manage deadlines, and liaise with the DOAH.

Example: By hiring a law firm experienced in NICA claims, like Turnbull Law Firm, you can focus on your child’s immediate needs while the firm manages the legal process, from filing the petition to representing you during any hearings.

Adjudication Process

Detail: Once all the paperwork is filed and testimonies are collected, an Administrative Law Judge will review the materials and issue a final order. This final order will determine your eligibility for NICA benefits and what those benefits will include.

Example: After reviewing the submitted evidence and expert testimonies, the judge might rule in favor of the claim, thus entitling the family to comprehensive lifetime benefits for the child’s medical care, among other things.

NICA Benefits: What You Need to Know

Navigating the complexities of birth-related injuries can be emotionally and financially draining. The Florida Birth-Related Neurological Injury Compensation Act (NICA) aims to relieve some of that burden by offering an extensive array of benefits. Here, we delve into the specifics:

Comprehensive Lifetime Medical Benefits

Detail: One of the most notable benefits under NICA is the coverage for “necessary and reasonable” medical and hospital expenses. This often includes surgeries, therapies, medications, and medical equipment necessary for the child’s condition.

Example: If a child requires specialized wheelchairs or assistive communication devices as they grow, these could be covered under NICA’s comprehensive medical benefits.

Custodial and Attendant Care

Detail: NICA may cover expenses related to the necessary custodial and attendant care for the child’s daily life, especially if the child is not able to perform daily activities without assistance.

Example: This could include paying for a part-time or full-time nurse, or even specialized daycare facilities equipped to handle the child’s specific medical needs.

One-Time Payments of $100,000

Detail: Under NICA, parents or legal guardians are entitled to a one-time payment of $100,000. This lump sum is intended to help alleviate the immediate financial strain following the diagnosis of a birth-related neurological injury.

Example: This one-time payment can be used to modify the home for accessibility, like installing ramps or widening doorways, or for purchasing a vehicle that can accommodate a wheelchair.

Additional Expenses

Detail: The NICA benefits also cover certain reasonable expenses related to filing the claim. These can include legal fees, administrative costs, and more.

Example: If you had to travel to attend hearings or meet with experts, these travel expenses might be reimbursed under NICA.

Limitations to Consider

While NICA offers crucial financial relief, there are limitations:

No Pain and Suffering Compensation

Detail: NICA doesn’t cover non-economic damages, such as pain and suffering, emotional distress, or loss of companionship.

Example: Even though the child and family may experience emotional trauma, NICA’s compensation will focus solely on material and medical needs.

Restrictions on Double Benefits

Detail: NICA benefits don’t duplicate other benefits. If you’ve received compensation through insurance, Medicaid, or Medicare, NICA benefits will only cover what these sources don’t.

Example: If your insurance already covers a portion of your child’s medication costs, NICA will only cover the remaining balance, not the full cost.

Eligibility Criteria

Detail: Not all birth-related neurological injuries qualify for NICA. There are stringent eligibility criteria that must be met, and not every family who applies will receive benefits.

Example: If the attending obstetrician during the birth was not a participating NICA provider, you may not be eligible for NICA benefits.



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Sanga Turnbull

Sanga Turnbull is the founder and principal attorney at The Turnbull Law Firm, a Florida law firm helping personal injury victims in Winter Haven and Orlando recover compensation for harm done to them by the negligence of others. The comprehensive personal injury practice at The Turnbull Firm includes all manner of motor vehicle accidents, nursing home neglect and abuse, slip and fall, workplace and industrial accidents, medical malpractice, catastrophic injury, wrongful death, and more. Injury victims or their families are invited to call The Turnbull Firm for a no-cost, confidential consultation about any potential claims they may have.